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Home / Books / Published Books / Solar Photovoltaic Power System: Evaluation and Applications in Developing Countries
Solar Photovoltaic Power System: Evaluation and Applications in Developing Countries
Mashauri Adam Kusekwa
Published Date:
December, 2016
Science Publishing Group
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Table of Contents
The Whole Book
Front Matter
Chapter 1 Renewable Energy Resources
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Renewable Energy Sources
1.3 Renewable Energy Resources Categories
1.4 Renewable Energy Benefits
1.4.1 Renewable Resources, Promote Energy Diversification
1.4.2 Renewable Resources Are Sustainable
1.4.3 Renewable Energy Is Cost Effective
1.4.4 Renewable Energy Is Important to Environment and Economy
1.5 Renewable Energy Technologies Available for Use
1.6 Available Renewable Technologies
1.6.1 Biomass Convention Technology
1.6.2 Biofuel Technology
1.6.3 Geothermal Energy Technology
1.6.4 Wind Energy Technology
1.6.5 Solar Photovoltaic Technology
1.7 Solar Technology Trends in the World
1.8 End-Use Sectors
1.9 A Possible Vision
1.10 Policy Needs
1.11 Rationale for Harnessing the Solar Resource
1.12 Drivers and Incentives
1.13 Application Barriers of Renewable Energy Resources
1.14 The Growing Role of RETs in Energy System
1.15 Technical and Barriers in Developing Countries
1.15.1 Design and Installation
1.15.2 Quality Control and Warranties
1.15.3 Maintenance
1.15.4 Training
1.15.5 Local Infrastructure Development
1.16 Nontechnical Issues
1.16.1 Awareness
1.16.2 Institutional Capacity-Building for Micro Finance
1.16.3 Community Participation
Chapter 2 Solar Energy Applications
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Solar Resource
2.2.1 Passive Solar for Buildings
2.2.2 Solar Heat Collectors
2.2.3 Solar Thermal Concentrating Systems
2.2.4 Photovoltaics Technology
2.3 Applications of Solar Energy
2.3.1 A Basic Heat Exchanger
2.3.2 Parabolic Solar Collectors
2.4 Solar PV Use
2.4.1 Underground Water Pumping
2.4.2 Solar Cooking
2.4.3 Solar Water Purification
2.4.4 Solar Powered Irrigation System
2.5 Advantages of Solar Energy Resources
2.6 Solar Energy Utilization Limitation
Chapter 3 Computation of Solar Parameters and Equipment Used in Solar PV System
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Solar Radiation
3.3 Fundamentals of Solar Energy
3.3.1 Electromagnetic Radiation
3.3.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum
3.3.3 Solar Radiation
3.3.4 Parameters Relating to Solar Radiation
3.4 Sunshine Hours
3.5 Generalized Regression Empirical Models
3.6 Model Evaluation Schemes
3.7 Equipment Used in a Solar PV System
3.7.1 Solar Cells
3.7.2 Materials of Solar Cells
3.7.3 Type of Solar Cells
3.7.4 Equivalent Circuit of a Solar Cell
3.8 Solar Panel
3.9 Charger Controller
3.9.1 Function of Charge Controller
3.9.2 Selection of Charge Controller
3.10 Solar Battery
3.11 Balance of System (BOS)
Chapter 4 Sizing of a Solar Home Systems (SHS)
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Solar Radiation
4.1.2 Atmospheric Effect on Solar Radiation
4.1.3 Air Mass
4.1.4 Daily and Seasonal Temperature Variations
4.1.5 Physical Parameters
4.2 Solar Energy
4.3 Deployment Challenges
4.4 Solar Home Systems
4.5 Sizing of an SHS System
4.6 Steps in Sizing an SHS System
4.6.1 Load Estimation
4.6.2 Selection of System Voltage
4.6.3 Selection of Solar PV Module
4.6.4 Determine Solar PV Array Size
4.6.5 Determine Number of Modules in Series
4.6.6 Determine Number of Modules in Parallel
4.6.7 Determine Battery Bank Capacity
4.6.8 Determine Inverter Size
4.6.9 Determine Voltage of a Regulator
4.6.10 Determine Cable Sizes
4.7 Deployment Barriers of SHS
4.7.1 Solar Energy Requires High Cost to Implement
4.7.2 The Failure of People to Fully Understand the Technology
4.7.3 Government Lethargy to SHS Initiatives
4.7.4 Inadequate Financing Plan for SHS Projects
4.7.5 Inadequate Workforce Skills and Training
4.7.6 The Difficulty of Overcoming the Financial Convenience
4.8 General Deployment Challenges
4.8.1 Promotion and Adoption of Solar Technology
4.8.2 Accessibility
4.8.3 Lack of External Aids
Chapter 5 Sizing of Solar PV Water Pumping System
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Advantage of Solar Powered Pumps
5.3 Solar PV and Pump Configuration
5.3.1 Direct Coupling
5.3.2 Direct Coupling with Array Configuration
5.3.3 Direct Coupling with Booster
5.3.4 Use of DC-to-DC Converter (MPPT)
5.4 Equipment in Solar Powered Water Pumping System
5.4.1 Solar Panel
5.4.2 Solar Pump
5.4.3 Charge Controller
5.4.4 Inverter
5.4.5 Solar Batteries
5.4.6 Mounting Structure
5.4.7 Water Storage
5.4.8 Other Equipment
5.5 Solar Water Pumping Applications
5.5.1 Domestic Water Supply
5.5.2 Irrigation and Livestock Watering
5.6 Solar Pump Type
5.6.1 Submersible vs. Surface Pump
5.6.2 AC Voltage vs. DC Voltage
5.7 Sizing of Solar PV Water Pumping System
5.7.1 Advantages of Solar Powered Pumping System
5.7.2 Solar Water Pumping System Sizing
5.7.3 Water Storage vs. Battery Storage
5.8 Solar Water Pumping System Layout
5.8.1 Structure
5.8.2 Orientation of Solar Arrays
5.8.3 Tilt Angle of Solar Arrays
5.8.4 Solar Array Sun Tracking
5.8.5 Solar Pump Location
5.8.6 Other Conditions
5.8.7 Sizing Methods
5.8.8 Water Source
5.8.9 Water Demand
5.8.10 Total Head
5.8.11 Solar Resources
5.8.12 Required Flow Rate
5.8.13 Solar Pump Size
5.9 Sizing of a Solar PV System for Small-Scale Irrigation
5.9.1 Crop Irrigation
5.9.2 Food Preservation
5.9.3 Rural Electricity Supply
5.9.4 Space and Water Heating
5.9.5 Greenhouse Heating
5.10 Source of Water Use for Irrigation
5.11 Solar Water Pumping for Irrigation
5.12 Brief Description and Applications
5.13 Main Types of Solar Pumps for Irrigation
5.14 Sizing Steps
5.15 Sizing of a Solar PV Water Pumping for Livestock Watering
5.16 Sizing Process
5.16.1 Water Requirement
5.16.2 Water Source
5.16.3 System Layout
5.16.4 Water Storage
5.16.5 Solar Panel Orientation
5.16.6 Design Flow Rate for the Pump
5.16.7 Total Dynamic Head (TDH) of the Pump
5.16.8 Pump Selection
5.16.9 Solar Panel Selection and Array Layout
5.16.10 Solar Array Mounting and Foundation Requirement
5.16.11 Water Flow Rates and Delivery Point Pressure
5.17 A Case Study
Chapter 6 Installation, Commissioning and Testing of Solar PV Systems
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Installation
6.3 Commissioning
6.4 Label and Markings
6.5 Testing and System Measurement
6.5.1 Continuity Testing
6.5.2 Polarity Testing
6.5.3 Voltage and Current Testing
6.5.4 Open-circuit Voltage Testing
6.5.5 Insulation Resistance Testing
6.5.6 Equipment Test
6.5.7 Testing Considerations
6.5.8 Test Procedures
6.5.9 System Functional Testing
6.5.10 System Performance Testing
6.5.11 Verifying Power and Energy Production
6.5.12 Verifying AC Power Output
6.5.13 Verifying AC Energy Production
6.5.14 Other Tests
6.5.15 Power Quality Analysis
6.5.16 Thermal Imaging
6.5.17 Inverter Efficiency Tests
6.5.18 Shading Analysis
6.5.19 Preparation of Test Reports
Chapter 7 Troubleshooting and Maintenance of Solar PV Systems
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Troubleshooting
7.3 Solar PV System Maintenance
7.3.1 Testing During Maintenance
7.3.2 Solar Pump Maintenance
7.3.3 Motor Maintenance
7.4 Solar PV Pumps
Chapter 8 Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Solar PV Systems
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Objective of LCCA Analysis
8.3 Components of Life Cycle Cost
8.4 LCCA Calculations
8.4.1 Capital Cost
8.4.2 Maintenance Cost
8.4.3 Energy Cost
8.4.4 Salvage Value
8.5 Techno-Economic Evaluation of Solar PV System
Back Matter
Engineer Dr. Mashauri Adam Kusekwa was born on 27th October, 1962 in Tanzania. He is a lecturer in electrical engineering department at the Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology (DIT) in Dar es Salaam. He received his PhD in Power System Engineering (Power System State Estimation) from Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) in September, 2010, and his M.Sc. degree in Electrical Machines and Apparatus from Higher Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Sofia, Bulgaria in July, 1991. He teaches electrical machines at undergraduate level, and energy management and research methodology at postgraduate level. In addition to teaching, Dr. Kusekwa is an electrical consulting engineer and a researcher. His area of research interest is renewable energy technologies, particularly the solar energy technology and power system state estimation. He has published widely in renewable energy, electrical load flow and power system state estimation.
Electricity generated from solar energy has been widely applied worldwide. In the majority of rural areas in developing countries, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there are reasons why the use of solar energy is so necessary; firstly, appropriate climatic conditions in these countries; secondly, delayed electricity supply projects in these rural areas.

Producing electricity from the sun using photovoltaic (PV) systems has become a major industry worldwide. But designing, installing and maintaining such systems requires knowledge and training. And there have been few easily accessible, comprehensive guides to the subject particularly in developing countries. Hence, this book will fill this existing gap.

The book contains a detailed description of Solar PV power system. It includes chapters on designing and sizing photovoltaic systems that can be used for water pumping for irrigation, drinking and livestock watering.
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